GGP at a Glance No. 24 / October 2015
Couples living together before marriage has become increasingly common over the past few decades. This raises the question of whether marriages preceded by cohabitation are more or less stable and enduring as marriages in which the couple have not previously lived together. Some argue that cohabitation lessens people’s commitment to partnership and thus increases their risk of divorce, while others believe that a cohabitation phase before marriage (as a trial marriage) would strengthen marital stability. In the United States, data suggest that the effect of cohabitation on marriage is at best neutral; however, in European countries, the effect of cohabitation on marital stability varies markedly, according to a study covering the last decade of the twentieth century (Liefbroer and Dourleijn, 2006). Figure 1 indicates just how much union stability varies across countries for both those who have cohabited prior to marriage and those who have not. The GGS enables us to examine whether this pattern has changed over time or differs across groups within society.
Mean duration in years of heterosexual 21-79 year old individuals first union which was a cohabiting relationship followed by marriage or a marriage not preceded by cohabitation
GGP at a Glance No. 23 / August 2015
The GGP’s longitudinal design allows researchers to examine how relationships change over time and in response to people’s changing lives. For example, we can examine how the birth of a first child affects the distribution of household work (excluding childcare) within a couple. From the graph below we can see that the majority of couples are to the left of the graph, showing that women do more of the housework even before the arrival of children. At wave 2 these couples, who have all had a child, are primarily still below the gender equality line. The orange line in the graph represents the point at which the distribution of household tasks is the same before and after the arrival of child. Interestingly, there are a roughly equal number of couples on either side of the line. This means that for some couples the distribution of household tasks becomes more gender unequal where in others, it becomes more gender equal. The GGS allows us to probe further and generic cialis no perscription examine what types of couples are in the first group and what type of couples are in the latter
Distribution of Household Tasks before and after the birth of a couples first child
GGP at a Glance No. 22 / June 2015
This month sees the release of the Wave 1 data for Sweden. The GGP now has publicly available data for 19 countries, allowing researchers to examine how lifecourses unfold in a wide variety of contexts. We know that families and lifecourses play out differently across countries but the GGP allows us to examine this in detail and its unprecendented breadth enables scientists to examine the role of contextual factors such as culture, policy and historical context. Figure 1 illustrates just how common coresiding with a parent is for young adults and when they start to move out in all 19 countries of the GGP. Such simple indicators raise questions as to why continued coresidence is common in places as diverse as Italy, Georgia and Japan, yet so uncommon in Scandinavia, Australia and http://www.rmarecruit.com.au/recruitment/cialis-tadalafil France. The detailed micro level data of the GGP enables us to examine these cross national differences at the individual level.
Percentage of 20-35 year olds living with at least one parent
Source: Generations and Gender Survey Wave 1
GGP at a Glance No. 21 / April 2015
The GGP has recently intergrated the Harmonized Histories Dataset within the GGP Data Collection and it is now available to all users The Harmonized Histories are a simplified dataset that covers partnership and fertility histories as well as some primary indicators. The dataset also includes data from the United States through the National Survey for Family Growth and we hope to add data from other countries in the near future. The dataset has been specifically adapted for use in event-history analysis and is therefore ideal for analysing the retrospective history elements of the GGP. It is aslo ideal for teaching event-history analysis as it is a smaller and simpler dataset than the full GGP dataset. The dataset was developed by the Non-Marital Childbearing Network and colleagues at Max-Planck and the GGP will continue to work with them to further develop this useful addition to the GGP data collection.
Age of First Cohabiting Union and First Birth
Source: Perelli-Harris, Brienna, Michaela Kreyenfeld, and Karolin Kubisch. Harmonized histories: manual for the preparation of comparative fertility and cialis prescription order lifestyle union histories. No. WP-2010-011. Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, 2010.
GGP at a Glance No. 20 / February 2015
Living apart together (LAT) relationships are when a couple are in a relationship but choose not to live together. They are an interesting topic of study because data on these relationships is hard to come by as they do not appear in residency or marital registries. Surveys like the Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) are therefore vital in studying how prevelant these types of relationships are, what type of people generally have them and whether they are similar to marriage and cohabitation. Indeed, data from the GGS has been used by several international research projects which have examined precisely these questions. The findings suggest that such relationships are in fact a sizeable minority and often allow couples to meet short term work and educational requirements. They are therefore most common amongst the highly educated and those who are still in education. LAT relationships at older ages are most common amongst those who have experienced divorce in a previous relationship and those wanting to maintain independence.
Percentage of Adults living in LAT relationships by Country
Source: The graphic contains data from Wave 1 of the Generations and Gender Survey and the following publication: Liefbroer, Aart C., Anne-Rigt Poortman, and Judith Seltzer. “Why do intimate partners live apart? Evidence on LAT relationships across Europe.” Demographic Research 32.8 (2015): 251-286.
GGP at a Glance No. 19 / December 2014
Separation and divorce have large consequences for the well-being of family members and for intergenerational exchanges. In France, almost one in five children whose parents have separated or divorced never see their father. Children with separated or divorced fathers often do not live with them but nonetheless see them frequently at young ages. However, the frequency of contact rapidly dwindles afterwards so that the proportion who never see their father reaches 19% at ages 18-21 and 32% at ages 30-34. This contrasts strongly with contact with their mother. With a few rare exceptions, children with separated or divorced mothers report living with their mothers until they are 18. When they are older, contact between children and their mothers remains strong with only 5% of children aged 18-34 never seeing their mother. Age 18 is a clear break-off point, perhaps because rights associated with parental custody which apply until the children’s 18th birthday.
GGP at a Glance No. 18 / October 2014
The contextual database for the Generations and Gender Programme contains over 100 macro indicators at the national and regional level. It draws on data from a number of sources and can be analysed either as a stand alone dataset or in conjunction with data from the Generations and Gender Survey. You can browse the data at ggp-i.org or you can choose to download the datafile itself in SPSS, STATA or CSV format (see page 3 for details). Data in the Contextual database streches back over four decades, enabling researchers to examine demographic change over time in Europe and beyond. Here we can see the dramatic change in fertility over the past 60 years and how the fall and subsequent recovery in fertility occured in different countries at different times. It is also possible to vizualise events that shaped Europe’s demography, such as the regime transitions of the early 1990’s. This data therefore adds a great deal of context to the rich individual level data within the Gender and Generations Survey and represents a useful research tool in understanding families and relationships at the macro level.
GGP at a Glance No. 17 / August 2014
This month saw the release of wave 2 data for the Czech Republic, extending the number of countries for which have wave 2 data is available to nine. There are a further three countries (Italy, Austria and Russia) for which the data are currently being harmonised which will help extend this to twelve. Data from wave 2 allows researchers to examine one of the most compelling aspects of the Generations and Gender Programme which is the study of life plans and their realisation. Throughout the GGP questionnaire there are a number of questions relating to individuals intentions over the next 3 years and data from wave 2 helps researchers examine whether these plans are realised. Existing research from the GGP has suggested that there are considerable differences in realisation rates across countries, across socio-economic status and across gender. Data from countries like the Czech Republic therefore helps us expand this exciting and insiteful area of research.
Since wave 1, did you realise your intention to....
GGP at a Glance No. 16 / June 2014
The GGP is now over 14 years old and yet it continues to grow with the release of new data and an ever increasing number of users. Did you know that the number of users of the GGP has grown by 33% in the last 12 months alone and recently passed the 2,000 mark? This number is expected to continue to increase over the next year as data from the Austria, Czech Republic, Italy, Russia and Sweden is made available to users. The use of the GGP by the research community is further evidenced by the number of presentations at this month’s European Population Conference where 45 presentations will draw on GGP data as well as a further 16 posters. The number of studies based on GGP data in top journals also continues to increase as can be seen on page 2 where a handful of recent articles are detailed.
Registered users of the Generations and Gender Program in 2014
GGP at a Glance No. 15 / April 2014
One of the main subjects covered in the Generations and Gender Programme (GGP) is the interaction between work and family life. The graph below shows that maternal employment varies considerably across European Countries. These differences could be caused by a large variety of social, economic or cultural factors. The GGP is an invaluable tool for exploring this as it is the only data source that covers such a diverse range of indicators including values and attitudes, the distribution of household work, childcare availability and usage, policy indicators, work and educational histories, financial circumstances, social networks, housing conditions and the respondents beliefs, intentions andexpectations. These indicators, combined with the longitudinal and comparative design of the survey, make the GGP uniquely positioned to answer many pressing questions.
Percentage of Mothers with Children under 3 who are employed
GGP at a Glance No. 14 / February 2014
The GGP now has an interactive bibliography that makes it possible for data users to submit their own publications, presentations and papers. We hope that this will make it easier to record and keep track of publications using GGP data. This is vital in demonstrating the value of the GGP to stakeholders and funding agencies. We would therefore be very grateful if you could take a few minutes to check whether we have recorded all your theses, papers, presentations, dissertations, reports and book chapters. If any are missing then you can log in to the GGP website and add whatever is missing. This will help ensure we are measuring the full extent of the GGP’s impact.
GGP at a Glance No. 13 / December 2013
The longitudinal design is a key aspect of the Generations and Gender Survey. As more wave 2 data becomes available, researchers are able to take advantage of the many benefits that longitudinal data brings. One of these advantages is the ability to observe events such as the birth of a child. The figure below illustrates that the percentage of women aged 20-35 who had a child between wave 1 & 2 varies considerably across countries. Due to the vast array of variables contained in the data, researchers will be able to investigate whether this is due to differing social norms, institutional constraints or some other factors. As we enter 2014, the GGP aims to release more and more wave 2 data to the public and support this longitudinal, comparative analysis.
Fertility between Waves 1 & 2 in the GGP
GGP at a Glance No. 12 / October 2013
This issue marks the launch of Wave 1 data from Poland. This adds yet another post-communist country to the GGP alongside Bulgaria, Georgia, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania and Russia. Poland is well known as having a unique attitude towards organised religion among these countries given its strong Catholic Identity. The graph below supports this as it shows that the large majority of Polish people have attended a religious ceremony in the last month. This religiosity may have considerable consequences for demographic behaviour as evidenced here where there appears to be a strong relationship between attending religious services and individuals cohabiting outside of marriage.
Religious Service Attendence and Cohabitation outside of Marriage
GGP at a Glance No. 11 / August 2013
You may know that loneliness is more prevalent amongst older people than younger people but did you know that loneliness levels also vary across countries? Data from the GGP illustrate that both older and younger age groups show higher levels of loneliness in Eastern Europe than those in Western Europe. Eastern European societies have experienced rapid societal and economic changes. These have often resulted in increased economic inequalities, poverty and psychological stress, each affecting the risks for loneliness.
Loneliness on the De Jong Gierveld Short Scale across 7 Countries
GGP at a Glance No. 10 / June 2013
Strong family ties can diminish people’s likelihood of having depressive feelings by providing material and non-material resources. Having both parents alive, having not experienced the divorce of one’s parents, and having siblings were all found to reduce the risk of having a depressive mood. Being married was found to have a particularly protective effect (after controlling for education, employment status, and financial situation). Moreover, this effect was found to be stronger in Eastern than in Western European countries suggesting that a more supportive welfare state can buffer the impact of not being married on one’s depressive mood.
Impact of marital status on the likelihood of having a depressive mood among adults age 18-79 in Eastern and Western European countries
GGP at a Glance No. 09 / April 2013In most countries, cohabitors report lower levels of relationship quality as compared to married couples.However, the quality gap (between cohabitors and married people) is largest in countries wherecohabitation is less prevalent. Cross-national differences in the acceptance and prevalence of cohabitationmay therefore have an influence on how cohabitators perceive the quality of their relationship.It may contribute to making them more, or less, similar to married people.
Prevalence of cohabitors and relationship quality gap between cohabitors and married people (age 18 to 55)
GGP at a Glance No. 08 / February 2013
The presence of children is associated with greater inequality in the gender division of housework among couples in France, western Germany, and eastern Germany. In all three cases, couples with children share housework tasks less equally than their childless equivalent. However, major cross-national differences exist when it comes to the age of children. While in western Germany the inequality is largest when young children are present, and slightly improves thereafter, the exact opposite pattern is observed in France.
Gender division of housework by age of the youngest child
GGP at a Glance No. 07 / December 2012
Since the year 2000, a total of about 680 papers or reports based on GGS data have been published or presented at conferences. This includes more than 200 articles in scientific journals and 21 PhD theses. As of 2012, the GGP counts close to 600 registered projects, up from 100 in 2009!
Number of bibliographical units using GGP as the data source
GGP at a Glance No. 06 / November 2012
In addition to providing individual-level survey data, the Generations and Gender Programme (GGP) offers contextual data on demographic, social and economic conditions at the national and regional levels for up to 60 countries. These data are available in the GGP Contextual Database, which is integrated into the GGP web page. The GGP Contextual Database enhances the analytical potential of the Generations and Gender Survey by enabling users to link individual-level behaviour with information about the context in which the individual is embedded. The database is designed to support research into micro-macro links at the intersection of demographic and social science research. In addition, researchers interested in studying macro-level trends can also benefit from the data available in the GGP Contextual Database. The database is co-ordinated by the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany.
Main Contextual Database interface: Example
GGP at a Glance No. 05 / October 2012
Receiving childcare help from grandparents has a positive and significant impact on mothers’ labour force participation in some countries (Bulgaria, Germany and Hungary) but not in others. Findings thus suggest a complex interaction between formal and informl childcare, national context, and fertility decisions. Moreover, controlling for the endogeneity of grandparents’ childcare provision through the use of instrumental variables reveals considerable biases as compared to a “naive” probit model.
Estimated marginal effect of grandparents’ childcare provision on mothers’ labour supply a
a: Estimated with a bivariate probit model, marginal effects after controlling for age, education, number and age of children.
Source: Aassve, A., Arpino, B., Goisis, A. (2012). Grandparenting and mothers’ labour force participation : a comparative analysis using the Generations and Gender Survey. Demographic Research. 27, 3: 53—84.
The GGP NESSTAR Online Access enables searching, browsing and analyzing Generation and Gender Survey (GGS) data and metadata without the user having to access the micro-data files directly. The NESSTAR interface consists in an intuitive user-friendly analytical tool that allows visualizing data with tables and graphs as well as performing basic statistical analyses. Researchers, students, journalists, policy makers, and anyone interested can easily obtain a comprehensive overview of GGS data and metadata. The interface is maintained by the Survey Department of the “Institut national d’études démographiques” (INED, France).
Main NESSTAR interface: Example
GGP at a Glance No. 03 / August 2012
Both filial responsibility norms (from adult children to their elderly parents) and parental responsibility norms (from elderly parents to their grown-up children) display a clear East-West gradient. The gradient is however steeper in the case of filial norms. In both cases, the support for family norms is lower in Norway and higher in Georgia. In the North-west European countries, filial norms were moreover found to have a more open character in that adult children are expected to help older parents in case of need, but not necessarily to adjust their working lives to their parents’ needs. Stronger, and more unconditional norms, were instead observed in Eastern Europe.
Average value of the index of filial responsibility and the index of parental responsibility in seven European countries a
a: Mean score of a two-item index with each item measured from '0'(totally disagree) to '4(totally agree). A higher score thus indicates a stronger support for filial/parental obligations.
Source: Daatland, S.O., Herlofson, K., Lima, I.A. (2011). Balancing generations: on the strength and character of family norms in the West and East of Europe. Ageing & Society, 31 (7): 1159—1179.
GGP at a Glance No. 02 / July 2012
Both social pressure and emotional support (as a form of social capital) influence the likelihood of intending to have a second or third child. Being exposed to higher social pressure consequently results in a higher predicted probability of intending to have a child. The probability is however higher for men in France than in Bulgaria or Germany.
Predicted probability of intending to have a second or third child for men
Source: Balbo, N. & Mills, M (2011). The effects of social capital and social pressure on the intention to have a second or third child in France, Germany, and Bulgaria, 2004–05. Population Studies, 65 (3), 335-351.
GGP at a Glance No. 01 / June 2012
Among young adults age 20 to 39 years old, more than 40 percent have at least one biological grandparent who is still alive. Inversely, among older adults age 60 to 79 years old, around 80% have at least one grandchild. Increasing longevity and low fertility exert opposite effect on the availability of kins and on the prevalence of multigenerational families.
Availability of different types of biological kin (%) by age group
Source: Puur, A., Sakkeus, L., Põldma, A., & Herm, A. (2011). Intergenerational family constellations in contemporary Europe: Evidence from the Generations and Gender Survey. Demographic Research, 25(4), 135-172.