Background: Along with population ageing, limitations in activities of daily living constitute a rising health-related burden in demographically advanced countries. The present study aims to assess the prevalence of self-re¬ported activity limitations derived from chronic conditions and social variation of limitations in the subgroups of the population aged 20–79 years in Estonia. Methods: A cross-sectional study employs data from the second round of the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey, a national project in the framework of Gender and Generation Programme. The target population covers age groups of 20–79 years. A nationally representative probability sample was drawn from the 2000 population census. Face-to-face interviews (n = 7855) were conducted in 2004–05. Results: The estimated prevalence of activity limitations with chronic conditions is 18.5% (95% CI 17.6–19.4) and the prevalence of severe limitations is 10.6% (95% CI 9.9–11.3) among the population. The logistic regression model shows signifi¬cant differences in activity limitations associated with age, educational attainment and marital status. Conclusions: Judging from our results and the EU structural indicators on health, the prevalence of activity limitations derived from chronic conditions is comparatively high in Estonia. The measures to prevent activity limitations and disability should receive a higher priority in Estonia.
The pattern of family formation has drastically changed in European countries since the 1960s. While the character of this change, such as the emergence and spread of cohabiting unions or the rising age at first marriage is to a large extent similar between countries, then the timing of changes is diverse. This paper addresses the emergence of cohabitation as a form of entering into first union in Estonia over the period of 1960-2004. The data is derived from Estonian Gender and Generations Survey 2004-2005, only female population is analysed. The sample includes 3543 native women and 1473 women of foreign-origin who have moved to the country during the post-war period mainly from Russian Federation and its hinterland. This proportion corresponds to the overall share of native and foreign-origin population in Estonian society, where post-war migrants and their decedents are forming around one third of the total population. Entering into first union is treated as a process with two possible transitions - the transition from the state of single and never partnered into direct marriage or the transition into cohabiting union. The general trend is that the standardised marriage rate falls while the intensity of forming cohabiting unions becomes a dominant form of entering into first union. Among native population in Estonia the shift from direct marriage to cohabitation took place already at the first half of 1970s, and followed a trajectory close to Scandinavian countries. Thus the emergence of cohabitation cannot be connected with political and economical change in the 1990s. Among the population of foreign origin the same shift was experienced 20 years later - quite similarly to the trend reported in case of Russia. This finding suggests that the influence of the country of origin on demographic patterns of immigrant population is maintained over generations.
The article examines the influence of educational attainment and enrollment on second births in Estonia, comparing Estonia's native population with immigrant population, which entered the country during the Soviet period and has mostly Russian/Slavic background. Furthermore, it compares the patterns before and after the onset of societal transformation of the 1990s. This allows us to analyse two different population groups that share the dynamics of the same socio-economic situation. Regarding education-fertility relationship, many Northern and Western European countries have shown a positive relationship between female education and second births, but in Central and East European countries the relationship generally seems to be negative. Estonia offers an interesting case where both patterns can be observed. While highly educated native women show high second birth intensities, highly educated immigrant women follow the East-European pattern. In the state socialist period, after controlling for the influence of other characteristics, including activity status and the partner's education, native women with tertiary education featured higher second birth intensity than any lower educational strata. In the post-socialist period, this difference has grown smaller but native Estonian women with tertiary education still display a significantly higher transition rate to second birth than their counterparts with secondary education. Highly educated immigrant women, however, exhibit lower second birth intensities than the less educated. That is, their behaviour is closer to population processes of their country of origin. Following the presentation of empirical findings, the article discusses the mechanisms that could underlie the observed relationship between education and fertility decisions in the changing societal context. The event history analysis employs microdata from the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey of 2004-05.
This article examines the influence of educational attainment and enrolment on second births in Estonia, comparing the patterns before and after the onset of the societal transformation of the 1990s. While many Northern and Western European countries have shown a positive relationship between female education and second births, this pattern has not been found in Central and East European countries. Against that background, Estonia offers an interesting case with noticeably high second birth intensities for highly educated women. In the state socialist period, after controlling for the influence of other characteristics, including the partner's education, women with tertiary education were found to have higher second birth intensity than women from any lower educational strata. In the postsocialist period, the difference has grown smaller, but women with tertiary education still display a significantly higher transition rate to second birth than their counterparts with secondary education. Following the presentation of empirical findings, the article discusses the mechanisms that could underlie the observed relationship between education and fertility decisions in the changing societal context. The analysis employs microdata from the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (GGS), conducted in 2004-05.