Abstract: This paper validates the fertility histories of the German Generations and Gender Survey (GGS). Focusing on the cohorts 1930-69 of West German women, the total number of children, the parity distribution and the parity progression ratios are compared to external sources. One major result from this validation is that the German GGS understates the fertility for the older cohorts and overstates it for the younger ones. We presume that two mechanisms are responsible for this pattern in the German GGS: On the one hand, children who have left parental home are underreported in the retrospective fertility histories. On the other hand, women with small children are easier to reach by the interviewer. These two mechanisms taken together produce too low numbers of children for the older and too high ones for the younger cohorts. Extending the validation to marital histories has revealed a similar bias. Our general conclusion from this investigation is that the German GGS may not be used for statistical analyses of cohort fertility and marriage trends. For subsequent surveys, we suggest integrating simple control questions in questionnaires with complex retrospective fertility and union histories.
Die Arbeitsmarktbeteiligung von Frauen mit türkischem Migrationshintergrund in Deutschland ist geringer als die anderer Migrantengruppen und als die von Frauen ohne Migrationshintergrund. Diese Studie untersucht mit Daten des Generations and Gender Survey (2005/2006), inwiefern sich Frauen der ersten und zweiten Migrantengenerationen hinsichtlich ihrer Erwerbsbeteiligung unterscheiden und welche Faktoren dafür ursächlich sind. In Einklang mit der Humankapitaltheorie lässt sich für die zweite Generation eine stark gesteigerte Erwerbsbeteiligung feststellen: Während in der ersten Generation nur etwa 34 Prozent der Frauen einer Beschäftigung nachgehen, beteiligen sich rund 63 Prozent in der zweiten Generation am Arbeitsmarkt. Besondere Berücksichtigung erfährt der Sozialkapitalansatz bzw. Aspekte intergenerationaler Transmission und Solidarität. Demnach übt – neben Bildung und Familienstand ? eine Erwerbstätigkeit der Mutter einen Einfluss auf die Erwerbsbeteiligung der Tochter aus, und stärker egalitäre Genderrolleneinstellungen begünstigen eine Erwerbstätigkeit.
This article examines the influence of educational attainment and enrolment on second births in Estonia, comparing the patterns before and after the onset of the societal transformation of the 1990s. While many Northern and Western European countries have shown a positive relationship between female education and second births, this pattern has not been found in Central and East European countries. Against that background, Estonia offers an interesting case with noticeably high second birth intensities for highly educated women. In the state socialist period, after controlling for the influence of other characteristics, including the partner's education, women with tertiary education were found to have higher second birth intensity than women from any lower educational strata. In the postsocialist period, the difference has grown smaller, but women with tertiary education still display a significantly higher transition rate to second birth than their counterparts with secondary education. Following the presentation of empirical findings, the article discusses the mechanisms that could underlie the observed relationship between education and fertility decisions in the changing societal context. The analysis employs microdata from the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (GGS), conducted in 2004-05.
Population ageing changes profoundly the current balance between generations. Governments are responding with policies to promote later retirement and family care, but these ideals may come in conflict in mid-life when family obligations can be hard to reconcile with employment. Yet we know little about the prevalence of being “sandwiched”, and even less about the consequences. This article maps out the prevalence of different forms of family and work sandwiching for the Norwegian population, and explores adaptive strategies and psycho-social outcomes. The analyses are based on data from the NorLAG and LOGG studies (n = 15 109, age 18–84). Preliminary findings indicate that 75–80% of the population are located in-between younger and older family generations in mid-life, the great majority are at the same time in paid work, but comparatively few (8–9% aged 35–45) have both children and parents in need at the same time, and fewer still (3%) are then also caregivers to older parents. Although few in proportion of their age group, they add up to a considerable number of persons. Women are more likely to reduce work in response to family needs than men. Implications of family and work sandwiching for health and well-being are analysed.
The „Generations and Gender Survey (GGS)“ is an important data source for studying the dynamics of families and family relationships, it was out in Austria in 2008/09. After adjustment for age, sex, employment status, country of birth and living arrangements, we revealed a bias towards women with higher parities among the cohorts born until the mid- 1970s. Since parity is an important aspect for fertility analyses, weights were generated for the female sample that additionally adjust for the cohort-specific parity distribution. In this paper, we describe the original prevailing bias and inform the GGS user about the adjustment with the weights for the Austrian GGS. These weights are provided by VID to the international scientific community and are included in the Austrian GGS dataset.
This paper observes the change since the 1970s in the proportion of men and women having only one child during their reproductive life, and examines their sociodemographic characteristics. The aim is to explore the significant variables of the complement of the parity progression ratio from first to second birth (1-A1). First, we present the theories, findings and results relating to the single-child family model in Europe. Then, we perform a multivariate analysis with the dependent variable of the model being the fact of not having had a second child ten years after the birth of a first child in stable unions.
Our analysis aims at analyzing whether general values and familial attitudes had a role in becoming parent and in bearing a second or a third child in the post-communist society of Hungary experiencing a demographic transition. This analysis is all the more timely as cultural and ideational explanations play a very important role in the interpretation of recent demographic changes and also because excellent analytical opportunities are offered by the first two waves of a panel survey. The effects of religiosity, individualism- and anomie-scale, optimism, age norms, ideal number of children and gender roles are analyzed. Using parallel logistic regression models for male and female on the one side, and first and further births on he other side, we could show and compare gender- and parity-specific influences of ideational factors. The analysis will not allow us to test general theories of demographic transition, but enables collect arguments for their relevance.
This study presents a life-table description of events related to the experience of children and of parents as they changed during the last two decencies, 1985-2005, in Romania. We consider the perspectives of men as well as of women and of couples as well as of children. The data we used stems from the Generations and Gender Survey carried out in Romania in 2005. We document for family behavioral changes that have accompanied the political and socio-economic transformation following the fall of the communist regime. We found that parenthood is still experienced very soon after entry into first marriage, and even slightly sooner when the first union starts as a cohabitation. However shotgun marriages, i.e. pregnancy followed by wedding, remain at the same level during the whole period. From children’s perspective the changes are related to a growing number and proportion born to cohabiting couples. Lone motherhood remains relatively rare. In post-socialist Romania fewer children experience parental disruptions than in the period of communist rule, and fewer children born to a lone mother experience a step father.