Population ageing is the global process that manifests itself in the dramatic increase in the number and proportion of persons aged 60 and over, and has been one of the most significant global phenomena in the 20th century. The first quarter of the 21st century has often been called “The Age of Ageing”. It is very important to study not only what elders have, but also how they are living and how they feel. Georgia is at a stage where the population is ageing mainly due to a decline in its birth rate. Since the country became independent in 1991, the proportion of the population aged 60 and over has increased from 14.7% to 18.6% in 2011. In Georgia every second household includes at least one family member aged 60 or over. In this paper special attention will be paid to study the well-being and living arrangements of Georgian elders based on the results of the Generations and Gender Survey in Georgia.
This study shows that the district level outcomes in the 2012 parliamentary elections in Georgia are significantly associated with the mean household deprivation levels. This effect is statistically significant after controlling for the regional dummies, urbanisation level, current district’s population size, the proportion of orthodox population, local ideological preferences, and the rate of turnout on the election day. The OLS models of the share of received votes in the proportional system and the logit models of the odds of victory of a party candidate in the majoritarian contest both reveal that the districts with the lowest and highest material deprivation levels were more likely to vote for the oppositional coalition. The results are robust even after excluding from the analysis two fraud-prone regions of Samtskhe-Javakheti and Shida Kartli.
Neyer, Gerda and Lappegård, Trude and Vignoli, Daniele
Does gender equality matter for fertility? Demographic findings to this question are rather inconclusive. We argue that gender equality is a complex issue that needs to be conceptualized in a way which includes gender equity and allows for gender differences but uncovers gender inequalities. We explore this approach by investigating the impact of four dimensions of gender equality on women´s and men´s childbearing intentions in Europe: the possibility to maintain a household, the capabilities to choose, the resources to have agency, and gender equity in household work and in care. We apply logistic regressions to data of the Generations and Gender Survey. Our results suggest that gender equality and fertility intentions are intertwined in a multi-faceted way, and that gender equality in the areas which we examine exert different impacts on women’s and men’s childbearing intentions. Our study also confirms that parenthood still constitutes a dividing line between more and less gender equality, and that this affects childbearing intentions of childless women and childless men differently than that of mothers and fathers. This necessitates an approach which allows identifying the essential gender inequalities in employment, in society, and in the family which matter for childbearing decisions.
Cette étude comparative de la France, la Géorgie, la Lituanie et la Russie explore un des champs des enquêtes GGS ayant trait aux valeurs. Elle s'applique à identifier les opinions au sujet de la solidarité intergénérationnnelle et leurs différences dans ces quatre pays. Deux dimensions sont plus particulièrement analysées. La première porte sur la conception qu'ont les répondants de l'implication relative de la famille et de la société dans l'aide aux plus jeunes et aux générations âgées. La seconde renvoie à la nature et aux modalités que peut prendre la solidarité familiale. Doit-il s'agir d'aides en nature ou en espèces ? Comment l'aide familiale intergénérationnelle est-elle perçue et quelle place occupe-t-elle dans les histoires de vie individuelles ? Est-il légitime que de telles aides modifient les parcours résidentiels et professionnels des hommes et des femmes ? Le présent article offre une réflexion méthodologique sur l'appréhension des opinions à partir d'enquêtes quantitatives et sur la pertinence en sciences sociales d'études comparatives entre pays. Il propose également d'étudier la solidarité entre générations en tant que révélateur des structures familiales et des contextes économiques et culturels des quatre pays.