Does gender equality matter for fertility? Demographic findings to this question are rather inconclusive. We argue that gender equality is a complex issue that needs to be conceptualized in a way which includes gender equity and allows for gender differences but uncovers gender inequalities. We explore this approach by investigating the impact of four dimensions of gender equality on women´s and men´s childbearing intentions in Europe: the possibility to maintain a household, the capabilities to choose, the resources to have agency, and gender equity in household work and in care. We apply logistic regressions to data of the Generations and Gender Survey. Our results suggest that gender equality and fertility intentions are intertwined in a multi-faceted way, and that gender equality in the areas which we examine exert different impacts on women’s and men’s childbearing intentions. Our study also confirms that parenthood still constitutes a dividing line between more and less gender equality, and that this affects childbearing intentions of childless women and childless men differently than that of mothers and fathers. This necessitates an approach which allows identifying the essential gender inequalities in employment, in society, and in the family which matter for childbearing decisions.
This paper follows previous research on the role of social capital and gender equity in fertility behavior. Our research question is to what extent social capital and gender equality in housework and childcare can explain fertility intentions and subsequent births in Russia. Russia is a country with prevalence of one-child families, whereas social norm is still two-children family. Since state support of families with children is weak and public childcare is underdeveloped, families bear most of child-related costs. The paper is based on two waves of Generations and Gender Survey (GGS), conducted in Russia in 2004 and 2007. Sample includes women of 18-44 and men with partners of the same age. We used binary logit models. Dependent variables include a) intentions to give birth within 3 years, b) births between two waves. Main explanatory variables include gender equity and social capital. The former varies from traditional to egalitarian partnerships. The latter is measured by five variables - 'parental family', 'attitudes toward intergenerational support', 'financial transfers', 'closeness to parents' and 'received childcare'. We control for sex, birth cohort, regional availability of public childcare, socio-economic status. The results show that social network for childcare does not influence either intended or actual fertility. Close relations with separately living parents increase only intentions to become parents. But access to financial transfers influence both intended and actual births of the first and second child. Besides, egalitarian division of housework and childcare significantly increases the probability of first and second births and probability of intentions to have a second child. The tentative conclusion is that gender equity concept is more relevant to explaining fertility behavior of Russian population than social capital.
Lefèvre, C. and Prokofieva, L. and Korchaguina, I. and Stankuniene, V. and Gedvilaite, M. and Badurashvili, I. and Sirbiladze, M.
Cette étude comparative de la France, la Géorgie, la Lituanie et la Russie explore un des champs des enquêtes GGS ayant trait aux valeurs. Elle s'applique à identifier les opinions au sujet de la solidarité intergénérationnnelle et leurs différences dans ces quatre pays. Deux dimensions sont plus particulièrement analysées. La première porte sur la conception qu'ont les répondants de l'implication relative de la famille et de la société dans l'aide aux plus jeunes et aux générations âgées. La seconde renvoie à la nature et aux modalités que peut prendre la solidarité familiale. Doit-il s'agir d'aides en nature ou en espèces ? Comment l'aide familiale intergénérationnelle est-elle perçue et quelle place occupe-t-elle dans les histoires de vie individuelles ? Est-il légitime que de telles aides modifient les parcours résidentiels et professionnels des hommes et des femmes ? Le présent article offre une réflexion méthodologique sur l'appréhension des opinions à partir d'enquêtes quantitatives et sur la pertinence en sciences sociales d'études comparatives entre pays. Il propose également d'étudier la solidarité entre générations en tant que révélateur des structures familiales et des contextes économiques et culturels des quatre pays.
Hoem, J. M. and Kostova, D. and Jasilioniene, A. and Mure?an, C.
Using data from the first round of the national Gender and Generations Surveys of Russia, Romania, and Bulgaria, and from a similar survey of Hungary, which were all collected in recent years, we study rates of entry into marital and non-marital unions. We have used elements from the narrative of the Second Demographic Transition (SDT) as a vehicle to give our analysis of the data from the four countries some coherence, and find what can be traces of the SDT in these countries. The details vary by country; in particular, latter-day developments in union formation patterns did not start at the same time in all the countries, but in our assessment it began everywhere before communism fell, that is, before the societal transition to a market economy got underway in 1990.
The paper provides an extensive descriptive analysis and comparison of recent trends in union formation and fertility in Bulgaria and Russia. The analysis is based on data from the Generation and Gender Surveys (GGS) carried out in 2004. We generate a large number of single- and multi-decrement life tables describing various life course events: leaving home and separation from the parental family, entry into union, first and second childbirth, divorce. Life tables are constructed for real cohorts as well as for synthetic cohorts. We study four real cohorts, born in 1940-44, 1950-54, 1960-64 and 1970-74. Synthetic-cohort life tables are constructed for three periods of time, referring to the pre-transitional demographic situation (1985-1989), the beginning of the transition (1990-1994) and recent demographic developments (1999-2003). We study also Roma and Turkish ethnic groups in Bulgaria. The life tables deliver detailed information that is otherwise unavailable. Our tentative findings indicate that societal transformation had a stronger impact on family-related behavior in the Bulgarian population than in the population of Russia. There is evidence that in some aspects Bulgaria is lagging behind other former socialist and Western European countries where the second demographic transition is more advanced. Evidence also suggests that Russia is lagging behind Bulgaria. However, certain specific features distinctive to Russia, such as the low level of childlessness, a drastic drop in second and subsequent births, and very high divorce rates even compared to Western European countries (it is a long-standing, not just recent trend), lead us to think that Russia may have a model of change particular to the country.
Lone mothers’ poverty rates in Russia were very high in the period following the transition in 1991, and earnings inequalities between women increased. The aim of this paper is to examine to what extent lone mothers’ economic situation may have also influenced their rates of partnership formation. This can add to an understanding of how the influence of growing economic inequalities extends to other areas of the life course as well. The data used is from the Russian Generations and Gender Survey (GGS), and methods of event-history analysis are applied for the empirical investigations. The effect of occupation on partnership formation is compared before and after the transition, as earnings differences between those working in different occupations grew after 1991. The results indicate that lone mothers working in service occupations, in particular, had substantially higher rates of partnership formation than those working in higher-paying professional occupations requiring a university degree, both before and after the transition in 1991. However, no large changes in the effect of occupation on partnership formation are found for the period after 1991 compared to the period before transition.